Status of Tobacco Smoking and Diabetes with Periodontal Disease
Introduction: Periodontitis is multifactorial disease that along with dental caries remains one of the commonest cause of tooth loss worldwide. Effective management requires clear understanding of risk factors. Smoking has a dose-dependent effect on periodontium. Similarly, individuals with diabetes have severe forms of periodontal diseases. We aim to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease in dental patients in relation to smoking and diabetes.
Methods: The study was conducted among 522 patients visiting the Periodontics Department, Kantipur Dental College. Individuals willing to participate had to sign an informed consent and undergo interview and clinical examination. Data collection, done on a structured proforma, was analysed using SPSS 20.0.
Results: Prevalence of periodontitis was 372 (71.3%), diabetes 33 (6.3%) and smoking as 138 (26.4%). Hypertension was observed in 64 (12.3%) patients and family history of diabetes among 94 (18%). Among the 372 periodontitis patients, smoking behaviour was present in 120 (32.3%), diabetes in 32 (8.6%), family history of diabetes in 72 (19.4%) and hypertension in 62 (16.7%). Conversely, 120 (87%) smokers, 33 (97%) diabetics, 72 (76.6%) with family history of diabetes, 62 (96.9%) hypertensive, 216 (41.4%) male and 156 (29.9%) female participants had periodontitis. Smoking behaviour was more in males: 115 (39.4%) compared to 23 (10%) females.
Conclusions: Periodontitis was significantly associated with smoking, diabetes, hypertension and age. It is recommended that tobacco cessation and diabetes control be promoted as an integral component of periodontal therapy and oral health be included as an essential element of general health when conducting national health surveys.
Copyright (c) 2018 Sujaya Gupta, Anjana Maharjan, Bhageshwar Dhami, Pratikshya Amgain, Sanjeeta Katwal, Bidhya Adhikari, Ashutosh Shukla
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