Journal of Nepal Medical Association <p><strong>About JNMA<br></strong>Journal of Nepal Medical Association (JNMA) is an internationally peer-reviewed, MedLine/PubMed indexed,&nbsp;a general medical journal of Nepal Medical Association. JNMA is the first and oldest medical journal from Nepal since 1963 AD. JNMA is available at <a href="">PubMed</a>, <a href=";query&quot;%3A%7B&quot;filtered&quot;%3A%7B&quot;filter&quot;%3A%7B&quot;bool&quot;%3A%7B&quot;must&quot;%3A%5B%7B&quot;term&quot;%3A%7B&quot;index.issn.exact&quot;%3A&quot;1815-672X&quot;%7D%7D%2C%7B&quot;term&quot;%3A%7B&quot;_type&quot;%3A&quot;article&quot;%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C&quot;query&quot;%3A%7B&quot;match_all&quot;%3A%7B%7D%7D%7D%7D%2C&quot;from&quot;%3A0%2C&quot;size&quot;%3A100%7D">DOAJ</a>, <a href=";btnG=&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0%2C5">Google Scholar,</a>&nbsp;Index Copernicus, EBSCO, EMBASE and other repositories.&nbsp;<br>JNMA abide by:<br>1. 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Committee on Publication Ethics for practising good publication ethics<br>You can also view our author guideline (printed version) from&nbsp;<a href="">HERE</a>&nbsp;[You need to have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer]<br>*Please go through&nbsp;<a href="" rel="noopener">Author Guideline Video</a>&nbsp;| <a href="" rel="noopener">Manuscript Preparation Video</a>&nbsp;for Nepalese Authors.&nbsp;</p> <p>JNMA is included and associated with</p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Member of OASPA" height="75"></a>&nbsp;,<img src="" alt="Search JNMA article in DOAJ">&nbsp;,&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href=";as_epq=&amp;as_oq=&amp;as_eq=&amp;as_occt=any&amp;as_sauthors=&amp;as_publication=jnma&amp;as_ylo=&amp;as_yhi=&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0%2C5"><img src="" alt="Search JNMA article in Google Scholar" height="75"></a>,<img src="" alt="Member of OASPA" width="121" height="75">,<img src="" alt="" height="75">,</p> <h1><a href=";Full=journal%20of%20nepal%20medical%20association" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index</a></h1> Nepal Medical Association en-US Journal of Nepal Medical Association 0028-2715 <p>JNMA allow to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allow readers to use them for any other lawful purpose. The author(s) are allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions. The JNMA work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>. More about <a href="">Copyright Policy</a>.</p> Risks to Living Kidney Donors – Current Perspectives <p>N/A</p> Badri Man Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 815 817 10.31729/jnma.3657 Status of Tobacco Smoking and Diabetes with Periodontal Disease <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>Periodontitis is multifactorial disease that along with dental caries remains one of the commonest cause of tooth loss worldwide. Effective management requires clear understanding of risk factors. Smoking has a dose-dependent effect on periodontium. Similarly, individuals with diabetes have severe forms of periodontal diseases. We aim to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease in dental patients in relation to smoking and diabetes.</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>The study was conducted among 522 patients visiting the Periodontics Department, Kantipur Dental College. Individuals willing to participate had to sign an informed consent and undergo interview and clinical examination. Data collection, done on a structured proforma, was analysed using SPSS 20.0.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>Prevalence of periodontitis was 372 (71.3%), diabetes 33 (6.3%) and smoking as 138 (26.4%). Hypertension was observed in 64 (12.3%) patients and family history of diabetes among 94 (18%). Among the 372 periodontitis patients, smoking behaviour was present in 120 (32.3%), diabetes in 32 (8.6%), family history of diabetes in 72 (19.4%) and hypertension in 62 (16.7%). Conversely, 120 (87%) smokers, 33 (97%) diabetics, 72 (76.6%) with family history of diabetes, 62 (96.9%) hypertensive, 216 (41.4%) male and 156 (29.9%) female participants had periodontitis. Smoking behaviour was more in males: 115 (39.4%) compared to 23 (10%) females.</p> <p class="p4"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>Periodontitis was significantly associated with smoking, diabetes, hypertension and age. It is recommended that tobacco cessation and diabetes control be promoted as an integral component of periodontal therapy and oral health be included as an essential element of general health when conducting national health surveys.</p> Sujaya Gupta Anjana Maharjan Bhageshwar Dhami Pratikshya Amgain Sanjeeta Katwal Bidhya Adhikari Ashutosh Shukla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 818 824 10.31729/jnma.3610 Cephalic Index in Indigenous Tharu Community <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>Cephalic index is an important parameter for differentiation of race and sex which varies significantly on the basis of hereditary, geographical, racial, sexual and other factors. It is a morphometric expression of different forms of head. The objective of this research was to evaluate the cephalic index of people of indigenous Tharu community of Biratnagar, Nepal and to determine different head types.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>A cross-sectional study was conducted in which maximum head length and breadth of 100 adult Tharu people living in Biratnagar were measured using spreading caliper and scale. The cephalic index was obtained from these values using Hrdlicka’s method.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>The mean cephalic index of the study population was 75.99±4.97. The mean cephalic indices of males and females were 76.22±5.14 and 75.78±4.85 respectively. The most common head type observed was dolichocephalic type 47 (47%). It was followed by mesocephalic type 37 (37%), brachycephalic type 13 (13%) was less common and least common was hyperbrachycephalic type 3 (3%).</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>Long head (dolichocephalic) type is more common in Tharu population in both the genders, whereas, broad head (brachycephalic and hyperbrachycephalic) type is present in very few people.</p> Sanzida Khatun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 825 829 10.31729/jnma.3487 Dietary Practice among the Patients with End Stage Renal Disease undergoing Maintenance Haemodialysis <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>Several studies on the nutritional status of chronic kidney disease patients living on haemodialysis revealed high prevalence of malnutrition (18-94%). A hospital-based study in Nepal revealed 66.7% mild to moderately malnourished and National Kidney Center reported common protein-energy malnutrition problem among haemodialysis patients. As almost all patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis looked malnourished, this study was carried out to explore prevailing dietary knowledge and practice of the patients.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 471 patients undergoing haemodialysis from June 2015 to July in 2015 was carried out. After stratification through a systematic random sampling method, 40 (67%) patients from National Kidney Center and 20 (33%) from Bir Hospital were selected, interviewed face to face by using structured questionnaire. Ethical and institutional approval and patients’ consent were obtained.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>The level of knowledge score found to be medium and practice score was even low. Seventy percent knew about renal diet but only 36 (60%) believed in it. After having kidney disease 42 (70%) had changed their dietary practice. Surprisingly, 38 (63.3%) said they ate the food what the other member in their family ate.</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>Considerable limited knowledge (medium) and practices (low) scores were found. Had they have taken adequate dietician’s support, they might have taken right kind and right amounts of foods and benefitted in controlling potassium, phosphate and protein at the recommended level. Plant-based diet could assist in end stage renal disease in a number of ways: an edge of protection against diet cost, reduce inter-related co-morbidities&nbsp;or complications (hypertension and diabetes).</p> Sangita Lamichhane (Dulal) Manasa Thapa Thakurathi Ram Krishna Dulal Shreejana Karki Krishna Bahadur Raut ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 830 836 10.31729/jnma.3723 Attitude Towards Mental Illness Among Medical Students And Interns of a Medical College <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>Mental health and physical health are interconnected. Attitude of medical professionals towards mentally ill affects the quality of care the patient receives. Today’s medical students are tomorrow’s medical practitioner. We conducted a study in a teaching hospital to assess the attitude towards mental illness among medical students and interns.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>A descriptive cross sectional study was performed in 265 students in Kathmandu Medical College in August, 2017. Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI) questionnaire developed by Cohen and Struening was used.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>Of the total participants, 49.8%(132) were male and 50.2%(133) were female. Medical students were more authoritarian, more benevolent and believed that mental illness is like any other medical illness. They showed neutral attitude in terms of social restriction of mentally ill and interpersonal relationship as a cause of mental illness.</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>Positive attitude was seen only in terms of benevolence and mental hygiene ideology. Effective teaching and training programs is necessary to bring in positive attitude change towards mentally ill among medical students.</p> Astha Prasai Shubash Chandra Sharma Rika Rijal Shreeyanta K.C. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 837 841 10.31729/jnma.3716 Concurrent Weekly versus Three Weekly Cisplatin with Radiotherapy in Locally Advanced Uterine Cervical Carcinoma. <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>Uterine cervical carcinoma is the commonest form of gynecological malignancy in Bangladesh as well as in South Asia. Outcome of weekly versus three weekly Cisplatin concurrent with External beam radiotherapy followed by intracavitary radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical carcinoma was compared in this study.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>A quasi experimental study was carried out from April 2016 to September 2017. Total eighty patients of uterine cervical cancer were included and received External beam radiotherapy concurrent with either weekly or three weekly Cisplatin followed by High dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy. External beam radiotherapy was given with a dose of 50 Gray (Gy) in conventional fractionation over 5 weeks. Cisplatin 40 mg/m<span class="s3">2</span>, weekly was given along with radiotherapy to the patients of Arm A (n=40) while the patients of Arm B (n=40) received cisplatin 75 mg/m<span class="s3">2</span>, 3 weekly along with the radiotherapy. Patients were evaluated weekly during treatment and afterwards up to 6 months.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>The mean age of patients were 48±9 years for Arm A and 42±9 years for Arm B. Complete response at 6 months of follow up was observed in 30 (75%) and 36 (90%) patients of Arm A and B respectively.Overall complete response was observed in 66 (82.5%)patients. Common toxicities were nephrological, hematological, skin and bowel related and were managed accordingly. Grade III-IV neutropenia was more in patients of Arm A (42.5%) than B (20%).</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>This study showed that the radiotherapy concurrent with three weekly Cisplatin is effective and less toxic than weekly Cisplatin in locally advanced cervical carcinoma.</p> Md. Rakibul Hasan Md. Abdul Bari Sarwar Alam Guru Sharan Sah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 842 847 10.31729/jnma.3636 Comparison of Fentanyl and Dexmedetomidine as Intrathecal Adjuvants to Spinal Anaesthesia for Abdominal Hysterectomy <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>Spinal anaesthesia, although advantageous for conducting abdominal hysterectomy, is not the first choice amongst surgeons for fear of intra-operative visceral pain. Intrathecal adjuvants may improve quality of spinal anaesthesia. This study aims to compare efficacy of intrathecal Fentanyl and Dexmedetomidine to reduce visceral pain during abdominal hysterectomy performed under spinal anaesthesia.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>Sixty women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications were randomly assigned to two equal groups in a double-blind fashion. Fentanyl 25 micrograms in group A or Dexmedetomidine 10 micrograms in group B was co-administered with hyperbaric Bupivacaine 15 milligrams for spinal anesthesia. Surgery through Pfannenstiel incision proceeded once sensory block reached eighth thoracic dermatome. The intra-operative visceral pain was assessed using a five-point scale: none, mild, intermediate, severe, and failed spinal anaesthesia. Duration of analgesia and peri-operative events were studied for 24 hours. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Student’s t-test were used for analysis. Level of significance used was P&lt;0.05.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>Fifty eight participants completed the study. Demographic variables and sensory block were similar between groups. General anaesthesia was not required in both groups. Significantly greater number of patients in group A required medications for visceral pain with Relative Risk of 2.8 (1.16-6.7). Pruritus and shivering occurred significantly higher in group A. Hypotension was significantly higher in group B. Post-operatively, group B patients showed a significantly longer duration of analgesia.</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>Dexmedetomidine is better than Fentanyl as an intrathecal adjuvant to spinal anaesthesia in minimizing visceral pain during abdominal hysterectomy and in prolonging post-operative analgesia.</p> Binod Gautam Sushila Tabdar Ujma Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 848 855 10.31729/jnma.3739 Mifepristone and Misoprostol Vs Misoprostol Alone in Second Trimester Termination of Pregnancy <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>During the last decade, medical methods for second trimester abortion have considerably improved and become safe and more accessible. The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is now an established and highly effective method for second trimester abortion. But where mifepristone is not available or affordable, misoprostol alone has also been shown to be effective. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of mifepristone with misoprostol and misoprostol alone for second trimester termination of pregnancy.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>It is a comparative study conducted on 60 patients from 13 to 18 weeks of gestation admitted for second trimester termination on legal indications.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>Mean induction abortion interval was comparable in both the groups. Of the 30 cases in each group, nine cases in each Group A and six cases in Group B had incomplete/failed expulsion. Among these 15 cases, only nine required check curettage for complete evacuation while others received oxytocics only for completion. The distribution of these cases was also comparable in both the groups. Only one patient in Group B had complete failure of expulsion and underwent surgical evacuation. However, the difference in dosage of misoprostol required for complete expulsion and incidence of side effects were significantly higher in the group B.</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>Mifepristone and misoprostol combined together is now an established, highly effective and safe method for medical method of second trimester termination. However, when mifepristone is not available or affordable, misoprostol alone can also be used effectively, although a higher total dose is needed and side effects are higher than with the combined regimen.</p> Deepa Shah Pappu Rijal Achala Thakur Rubina Rai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 856 860 10.31729/jnma.3690 Estimation of Body Height from Head Length among Dental Students of a Dental College <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>Body height is an important measure of physical identity. Height exhibits a dimensional relationship with various parts of the body. This relationship helps to calculate height from dismembered and mutilated body parts in forensic examinations. As the cranial dimensions are more reliable and precise means of predicting the stature, this study was undertaken to find the relation between head length and height and to derive a regression formula for the estimation of height from head length among dental students.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 150 dental students of age group 18-21 years in the Department of Anatomy, Kantipur Dental College Teaching Hospital and Research Center, Basundhara, Kathmandu. The head length was measured with the help of spreading caliper. Height was measured with the help of a standard height measuring instrument. The head length and the height of the students were measured in centimeters. Data obtained were analyzed to find the correlation between head length and height and to derive a regression equation for the estimation of height.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>A significant positive correlation was observed between head length and height (r=0.734, P&lt;0.001). The regression equation for body height and head length including both sexes and all age groups of dental students was found to be y=12.9+8.45x where x is head length and y is body height.</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>It was observed in the present study that there was a significant positive correlation between height and head length in all the age groups indicating that head length is a reliable indicator in estimation of height.</p> Bipana Manandhar Ritee Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 861 865 10.31729/jnma.3751 Awareness on Girl Child Abuse Among Mothers of A Selected Community <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>Girl Child Abuse is physically, emotionally, sexually abusing and neglecting the girl child by depriving her of universally accepted child rights. We aim to determine the awareness on girl child abuse among mothers so that necessary awareness programs could be recommended if found unsatisfactory.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>A descriptive cross-sectional study was done in Sundarbazar municipality of Lamjung district among randomly selecting 288 mothers who participated voluntarily in face to face interview that used structured questionnaire from 27<span class="s3">th </span>March to 23<span class="s3">rd </span>April, 2016. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferrential statistics like frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi-square and linear by linear association.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>The findings of the study revealed that majority of mothers 224 (77.8%) had average level of awareness regarding girl child abuse and only 21 (7.3%) had good level of awareness with mean score±SD of 45.94±9.94 (total score-76). Awareness of mother on girl child abuse was found significantly associated with age, ethnicity, educational status, type of family, age at marriage and number of children at P&lt;0.05.</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>The mothers had average level of awareness regarding girl child abuse; however, significant proportion of mothers still lacks good level of awareness. A nationwide study of such kind using qualitative tools as well as conducting awareness raising activities focusing on girl child abuse and sexual abuse in girl child is recommended.</p> Taniya Thapa Khagi Maya Pun Krishna Bahadur Raut Kalpana Silwal Rajendra Kumar Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 866 870 10.31729/jnma.3758 Prevalence and Indications of Cesarean Section in a Community Hospital of Western Region of Nepal <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>Cesarean section is one of the common obstetric procedures done when the childbirth is not anticipated to occur by the normal vaginal delivery. There has been increased rate of cesarean section globally as well as in our country in recent decades.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>This descriptive cross-sectional study has been carried out by reviewing a year of data from maternity ward of Paschimanchal Community Hospital, Prithvi Chowk, Pokhara. The total number of delivery, their modes either vaginal or cesarean, indications for the cesarean section and their outcomes were analyzed. The obtained data was entered and analyzed in Microsoft Excel.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>Total of 257 cases underwent delivery during the study period and 174 (63.27%) were by cesarean section. Oligohydramnios is the most common indication for cesarean section. Around 25 (14.36%) of the women underwent repeat cesarean section.</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>The rate of cesarean section was quite high in our study and further studies are recommended for understanding of causes and other associated factors with it.</p> Rajendra Kumar Chaudhary Krishna Bahadur Raut Kristina Pradhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 871 874 10.31729/jnma.3760 Etiological Yield of Global Developmental Delay in a Hospital <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Introduction: </strong></span>Global developmental delay is the common pediatric problem having spectrum of underlying causes. Etiological diagnosis is very vital for providing information regarding pathogenesis, prognosis, recurrence, risk and treatment options. The aim of this study was to determine etiological yield of global developmental delay.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Methods: </strong></span>This descriptive cross-sectional study included children of 6 months to 5 year of age with global developmental delay referred to pediatric outpatient Neurology clinic of Kanti Children’s Hospital. Diagnostic study included detailed history, examination followed by required investigations neuroimaging, electroencephalogram, hearing and visual assessment. Thyroid function test, karyotyping and enzyme essay were done in selected patients depending on the condition.</p> <p class="p2"><span class="s2"><strong>Results: </strong></span>In this study, 110 patients were evaluated out of which 70 were male and 40 were female. An etiological diagnosis was determined in 86 (78%) of the patients classified under following categories perinatal asphyxia 49 (44.5%), post infectious sequelae 11 (10%), cerebral dysgenesis 6 (5.45%), genetic syndrome 6 (5.45%), metabolic causes 5 (4.54%), neurocutaneous syndrome 4 (3.63%) and non-specific leucodystrophy changes . Etiology was unknown in 24 (21 %) of the patients.</p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2"><strong>Conclusions: </strong></span>A specific etiology can be determined in majority of cases of global developmental delay after comprehensive evaluation. The most common etiologies were perinatal asphyxia and post infectious sequelae.</p> Anshu Jha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 875 878 10.31729/jnma.3734 Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa <div>Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare inherited blistering disease with an incidence of 8-10 per million</div> <div>live births. Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is a type of epidermolysis bullosa caused by mutation</div> <div>in type VII collagen, COL7A1. There are 14 subtypes of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and 400</div> <div>mutations of COL7A1. Electron microscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test but expensive.</div> <div>Immunofluorescence study is a suitable diagnostic alternative. Trauma prevention along with</div> <div>supportive care is the mainstay of therapy. Squamous cell carcinoma develops at an early age in</div> <div>epidermolysis bullosa than other patients, particularly in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa</div> <div>subtypes. Regular follow-up is imperative in detecting and preventing complications. Gene therapy,</div> <div>cell therapy and bone marrow transplantation are the emerging novel therapeutic innovations.</div> <div>Preventing possible skin and mucosal injury in patients requiring surgery should be worked on.</div> <div>Here, we present a case of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in a 26-year-old male.</div> Randhir Sagar Yadav Amar Jayswal Shumneva Shrestha Sanjay Kumar Gupta Upama Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 879 882 10.31729/jnma.3791 A Forensic Tale of Nepal <p>An account is given of ancient funeral practices and then of the development of forensic medicine from the mid twentieth century. Early forensic practices at Bir Hospital have been recorded and then the subsequent development of the study of forensic medicine in the country has been stated.</p> Hemang Dixit ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 883 885 10.31729/jnma.3715 Are you Discussing Dental Caries in Children with Current and Local References ? - Letter to The Editor Martin Hofmeister ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 886 888 10.31729/jnma.3631 Re: Are you Discussing Dental Caries in Children with Current and Local References ? - Letter to The Editor Parajeeta Dikshit ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 889 890 10.31729/jnma.3708 Clinico-radiological Observations in Meconium Aspiration Syndrome - Letter to The Editor Jogender Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 891 892 10.31729/jnma.3541 Re: Clinico-radiological Observations in Meconium Aspiration Syndrome - Letter to The Editor Nagendra Chaudhary Susana Lama Shyam Kumar Mahato Nikhil Agrawal Santosh Pathak Om Prakash Kurmi Baldev Bhatia Kailash Nath Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 56 213 893 895 10.31729/jnma.3834 ERRATUM of Issue 209 JNMA 2018 <p class="p2">The online version of the “Clinico-radiological Observations in Meconium Aspiration Syndrome”(Lama S, Mahato S, Chaudhary N, Agrawal N, Pathak S, Kurmi O, Bhatia B, Agarwal K. Clinico-radiological Observations in Meconium Aspiration Syndrome. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2018 Feb;56(209):510-5) has been updated according to the letter to the editor and respective authors’ reply published in JNMA 213 Issue.</p> Journal of Nepal Medical Association ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 56 213 895 895 10.31729/jnma.3835