Ultrasound Versus the Landmark Technique: A Prospective Randomized Comparative Study of Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation in an Intensive Care Unit
The aim of this study is to find out if an ultrasound technique has advantages over the conventional landmark technique.METHODS:
This is a prospective randomized comparative study on 120 patients requiring central venous cannulation of the right internal jugular vein. The study comprised of two groups: ultrasound and landmark groups, each consisting of 60 patients. The outcome measures were compared between the groups.RESULTS:
Cannulation of the internal jugular vein was successful in 58 patients in the ultrasound group and in 53 in the landmark group. The number of attempts was 1.5 (1 - 3) and 2 (1 - 3) in the ultrasound and landmark group respectively (p = 0.001). The time taken for the successful cannulation was 4.9 +/- 1.7 minutes in the ultrasound approach and 8.0 +/- 2.8 minutes in the landmark approach (p = 0.00). The internal jugular vein diameter in the supine position was 11.2 +/- 1.5 mm which increased to 15.04 +/- 1.5 mm with a 15 degrees head-down position in the USG group (p = 0.001). The first attempt success rate was 39/60 (63%) in the ultrasound group and 19/60 (32%) with the landmark technique. The seven (12%) failure cases in the landmark group were rescued by the ultrasound technique. Inadvertent carotid artery puncture occurred in 2/60 (3%) and 6/60 (10%) of patients in the ultrasound and land mark group respectively.CONCLUSIONS:
Ultrasound improves success rate, minimizes cannulation time and complications during internal jugular vein cannulation. It can be employed as a rescue technique in cases of a failed landmark technique.
Keywords:cannulation, central, landmark, technique, ultrasound.
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