Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Elective versus Emergency Cesarean Section
Introduction: The complications of cesarean section are seen more commonly in emergency than in elective cases. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of cesarean section in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital and to compare the maternal and fetal outcome in elective and emergency cesarean section.
Methods: A prospective study of all the cases undergoing cesarean section in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital was carried out during the period of six months from Asar 2069 to Mangsir 2069.
Results: The incidence of cesarean section was 254 (22.30%) out of which emergency cesarean section accounted for 167 (65.7%) and elective cesarean section for 87 (34.3%). The usual indications of emergency cesarean section were fetal distress, previous cesarean section in labour, non progress of labour and prolonged second stage of labour. The usual indications of elective cesarean section were previous cesarean section, breech, cephalopelvic disproportion and cesarean section on demand. There was found to be no significant difference in age, period of gestation, blood loss and blood transfusion in emergency vs. elective cesarean section. There was significant difference seen in the length of hospital stay, fever, urinary tract infection, wound infection and low APGAR in five minutes indicating that these were more common in emergency cesarean section. Significant difference was also seen in the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage indicating that it was seen more in elective cesarean section.
Conclusions: The incidence of cesarean section in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital is high and the overall complication rate is higher in emergency cesarean section than in elective cesarean section.
Keywords: cesarean section; fetal and maternal outcome.
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