C-reactive Protein in Periodontitis and its Comparison with Body Mass Index and Smoking Behaviour
Introduction: Chronic periodontitis is an infectious disease resulting in inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment loss, and bone loss. In addition to declining oral health, there is always low grade infection present in periodontitis. Studies show increased levels of systemic biomarkers in periodontal disease such as CRP, which is considered a key-marker of CVD. Research has also shown positive association between BMI and smoking with periodontitis and CRP. The objective of the study was to assess the levels of CRP in patients with and without periodontitis and their relation with BMI and smoking behaviour.
Methods: Patients visiting the Dental department of Bir Hospital were invited to participate in the study. Total 31 subjects in each group: Case (periodontitis) and Control (without periodontitis) were selected using convenience sampling technique. All subjects underwent periodontal examination by a single examiner. Serum CRP samples were taken before periodontal treatment. Data analysis was done by SPSS 17 software program.
Results: Increase in mean CRP levels in periodontitis (5.8595mg/L) with high statistical significance (p=0.000) in comparison to subjects without periodontitis (1.1214mg/L) was observed. BMI showed positive association with periodontitis (p=0.046) but not with CRP (0.213). Smoking behaviour showed no significant relation with either CRP (p=0.344) or periodontitis (p=0.541).
Conclusions: We found highly significant association between periodontitis and CRP levels but not always with BMI and smoking. CRP, which is an established marker for CVD was significantly increased in periodontal infections. Hence, a close interaction among Physician, Periodontist and Patient to prevent adverse health situations is recommended.
Keywords: body mass index; cardiovascular disease; c-reactive protein; periodontitis; smoking; systemic inflammation. [PubMed]
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