Molecular Confirmation of G1138A Mutation in FGFR gene in Achondroplasia
Introduction: Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia of genetic origin in humans which is characterized by disproportionate rhizomelic dwarfism. Heterozygous mutation in the transmembrane domain of the FGFR3 gene (4p16.3) occurs as a de novo mutation in most of the cases.
Methods: DNA was isolated from seven samples, out of which, five had clinical features of Achondroplasia while one was dwarf but did not show symptoms of the disorder and one as negative control. PCR was performed for the region incorporating the hotspot region viz. 1138th nucleotide. PCR amplicon of size 164 bp was obtained from all the samples, and was sequenced.
Results: Sequence analysis showed the presence of mutation (G to A transition) in all of the five samples. The five samples that showed the clinical features of Achondroplasia had mutation in the region being analyzed while the single patient who had no clinical manifestations of the disorder despite being dwarf had no such mutation. Among the five patients studied, one patient had a family history of Achondroplasia as observed through pedigree analysis while the remaining four cases were sporadic in nature.
Conclusions: This study further supports that the G1138A mutation is the one of the most common point mutation among Achondroplasia cases. Genetic diagnosis can be useful to identify the disease prenatally and differentiate other life threatening dwarfism for the safety of both mother and fetus.
Keywords: achondroplasia; dwarfism; fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3); point Mutation.
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