Acoustic Analysis of Voice in School Teachers

  • Nain Bahadur Mahato Department of ENT-HNS, Kathmandu Medical College, Sinamangal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • Meera Bista Kathmandu Medical College, ENT department, Sinamangal, Nepal
  • Deepak Regmi Kathmandu Medical College, ENT department, Sinamangal, Nepal
  • Pema Sherpa Kathmandu Medical College, ENT department, Sinamangal, Nepal
Keywords: acoustic analysis, doctor speech, fiberoptic laryngoscopy, GRBAS scale, voice

Abstract

Introduction: The term ‘voice' is the acoustic energy generated from the vocal tract that are characterized by their dependence on vocal fold vibratory pattern. Teachers as professional voice users are afflicted with dysphonia and are discouraged with their jobs and seek alternative employment. Loud speaking and voice straining may lead to vocal fatigue and vocal fold tissue damage. 

Methods: Sixty teachers from various schools, volunteered to participate in this study. Acoustic analysis Doctor Speech Tiger Electronics, USA was used to assess the voice quality of the school teachers before and after teaching practice. The data were collected and analyzed using Doctor Speech Tiger Electronics, USA. Analysis was performed in terms of perturbation (jitter and shimmer), fundamental frequency, harmonic to noise ratio and maximum phonation time.

Results: We found statistically significant difference in all the four parameters except the Jitter value. The fundamental frequency and shimmer value has significantly increased (P<0.001) and (P=0.002) respectively after teaching practice. Unlikely, there was significant decrease in harmonic to noise ratio value (P<0.001) and maximum phonation time value (P<0.01) after teaching practice.

Conclusions: Vocal abuse, overuse, or misuse in teaching practice over a long period of time can result in inadequate phonatory pattern due to vocal fold tissue damage, which ultimately results in vocal nodules or polyps. So voice evaluation is particularly important for professional voice users and for the people who are concerned about their quality of voice.

Author Biographies

Meera Bista, Kathmandu Medical College, ENT department, Sinamangal, Nepal

ENT department, Assoc. Professor

Deepak Regmi, Kathmandu Medical College, ENT department, Sinamangal, Nepal

ENT department, Assoc. Professor

Pema Sherpa, Kathmandu Medical College, ENT department, Sinamangal, Nepal

ENT department, Speech therapist

References

1. McGlashan J, Fourcin A. Objective evaluation of the voice. In: Gleeson M, Browning GG, Buston MJ, Clarke R, Hibbert J, Jones NS, Lund VJ, Luxon LM, Watkinson JC. Scott-Brown’s Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. 7th ed. Great Britain: Hodder Arnold; 2008:2170-85. [Full Text]
2. Titze IR, Lemke JH, Montequin D. Populations in the U.S. workforce who rely on voice as a primary tool of trade: a preliminary report. J Voice. 1997;11:254-9. [PubMed]
3. Pekkarinen E, Himberg L, Pentti J. Prevalence of vocal symptoms among teachers compared with nurses: a questionnaire study. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 1992;17:113–7. [Full Text | DOI]
4. Gotaas C, Starr C. Vocal fatigue among teachers. Folia Phoniatr. 1993;45:120–9. [PubMed]
5. Fritzell B. Voice disorders and occupations. Logopedics Phoniatr Vocol. 1996;21:7–12. [Full Text | DOI]
6. Roy N, Merrill RM, Thibeault S, Gray S, Smith E. Prevalence of voice disorders in teachers and the general population: effects on work performance, attendance, and future career choices. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2004;47:542-51. [PubMed | DOI]
7. Sapir S. Vocal attrition in voice students: survey findings. J Voice. 1993;7:69–74. [PubMed]
8. Morton V, Watson DR. The impact of impaired vocal quality on children's ability to process spoken language. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2001;26:17–25. [PubMed]
9. Gray SD. Basement membrane zone injury in vocal nodules. In: Gauffin J, Hammarberg B, editor. Vocal Fold Physiology: Acoustic, Perceptual, and Physiological Aspects of Voice Mechanisms. Singular Publishing Group; San Diego, Calif: 1991:21–7. [Full Text]
10. Smith E, Lemke J, Taylor M, Kircher HL, Hoffman H. Frequency of voice problems among teachers and other occupations. J Voice. 1998;12:480–8. [PubMed]
11. Verdolini K, Ramig LO. Review: occupational risks for voice problems. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2001;26:37–46. [PubMed]
12. Smith EM, Gray SD, Dove H, Kirchner HL, Heras H. Frequency and effects of teachers’ voice problems. J Voice. 1997;11(1):81–7. [PubMed]
13. Sataloff RT. Professional voice users: the evaluation of voice disorders. Occup Med. 2001;16:633–47. [PubMed]
14. Rubin JS, Sataloff RT, Korovin GS, editors. Diagnosis and treatment of voice disorders. New York: Thomson Delmar Learning;2003. [Full Text]
15. Jónsdottir V, Laukkanen AM, Vilkman E. Changes in teachers’ speech during a working day, with ad without electric sound amplification. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2002;54(6):282–7. [PubMed | DOI]
16. Yu P, Ouaknine M, Revis J, Giovanni A. Objective voice analysis for dysphonic patients: A multiparametric protocol including acoustic and aerodynamic measurements. J Voice. 2001;15(4):529–42. [PubMed | DOI]
17. McCrea CR, Morris RJ. Effects of vocal training and phonatory task on voice onset time. J Voice. 2007;21(1):54–63. [PubMed | DOI]
18. Stemple JC, Stanley J, Lee L. Objective measures of voice production in normal subjects following prolonged voice use. J Voice. 1995;9:127–33. [PubMed]
19. Vilkman E, Lauri ER, Alku P, Sala E, Sihvo M. Effects of prolonged oral reading on F0, SPL, subglottal pressure and amplitude characterstics of glottal flow waveforms. J Voice. 1999;13(2):303-15. ¬[PubMed]
20. Samuel J, Mahalingam S, Balasubramaniyam S, Boominathan P, Arunachalam R.
Stroboscopic and Multiparametric Acoustic Analaysis of Voice after Vocal Loading Task. I Jol of Phonosurgery and Laryngology. 2011;1(2):47-51. [Full Text]
21. Wolfe V, Cornell R, Palmer C. Acoustic correlates of pathological voice types. J Speech Hear Res. 1991;34:509-16. [PubMed]
22. Vertraete J, Forrez G, Mertens P, Debruyne F. The effect of sustained phonation at high and low pitch on vocal jitter and shimmer. Folia Phoniatr (Basel). 1993;45:223–8. [Full Text]
23. deKrom GA. A cepstrum-based technique for determining a harmonics-to- noise ratio in speech signals. J Speech Hear Res. 1993;36:254–66. [PubMed]
24. Bonetti L, Bonetti A, Bolfan-Stosic N. Harmonics to noise ratio in vocal professional voices. J Acoust Soc Am. 2002;111:2480–1. [DOI]
25. Cielo CA, Conterno G, Carvalho CDM, Finger LS. Disfonias: relacao s/z e tipos de voz. Rev CEFAC. 2008;10:536–44. [Full Text]
26. Speyer R, Bogaardt HCA, Passos VL. Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability. J Voice. 2010;24:281–4. [PubMed | DOI]
Published
2018-06-30
How to Cite
Mahato, N., Bista, M., Regmi, D., & Sherpa, P. (2018). Acoustic Analysis of Voice in School Teachers. Journal of Nepal Medical Association, 56(211), 658-661. https://doi.org/10.31729/jnma.3626
Section
Original Article