Cervical Cancer Awareness and Practice of Pap Smear Test Among Women with Gynecological Problems

  • Meena Thapa Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kathmandu Medical College, Sinamangal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Keywords: awareness; cervical cancer; Pap smear test.


Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in Nepal. Pap smear test is the most important screening test for cervical cancer, which helps in reducing mortality from it. This study is to assess the knowledge of cancer cervix and practice of Pap smear test and to analyze the impact of educational status on them.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, carried out among the married women who attended the Out Patient Department for gynecological problems at Kathmandu Medical College. Structured questionnaires were used to collect the data.  The questionnaire consisted of three sections which included the demographic profile in first part , second part included assessment of the knowledge of cancer cervix, and third part included evaluation of  the utilization of Pap smear test.

Results: A total of 205 married women were included in the study. Out of them, 74% were aware of cancer cervix. Only 39% of women were aware of Pap smear test. Pap smear test coverage was 16.6% in studied population. Main reason of not doing Pap smear test was lack of knowledge of the test. High educational status of the women had significant positive impact on knowledge of cancer cervix and practice of Pap smear test.

Conclusions: The knowledge of cancer cervix was good in our women, but knowledge and the practice of Pap smear test was poor. Good educational status of the women was found to influence the on knowledge of cancer cervix and uptake of Pap smear test.


1. Poudel KK, Huang Z, Neupane PR, Steel R, Poudel JK. Hospital–Based Cancer Incidence in Nepal from 2010 to 2013. Nepal J Epidemiol 2017 Mar;7(1):659-65. [Full Text | PMC]

2. Globocan 2012:Estimated cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2012. International Agency for Research on Cancer. [Full Text]

3. Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers, World Summary Report 2010. Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Information Centre), WHO/ICO Nov 2010. [Full Text]

4. Nepal Human papilloma virus and related cancers, Fact sheet 2017, ICO Information centre on HPV and Cancer, WHO/ICO Jul 2017. [Full Text]

5. Cervical cancer Screening, IARC Handbook of Cancer prevention 10 International Agency for Research on Cancer, WHO. [Full Text]

6. Sherpa AT. Time For An Organized Cervical Cancer Screening in Bharatpur, Nepal [master’s thesis]. [ Norway]: University of Oslo; 2007.84 p. [Full Text]

7. Shrestha P. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice regarding Pap Smear Test among Women in Ward no.14, Dharan. [master’s thesis]. [Norway]: University of Tromso; 2014. 71 p. [Full Text]
8. Ranabhat S, M Neupane , G Dhungana, R Shrestha, M Tiwari. Pap smear coverage and effect of knowledge and attitude regarding cervical cancer on utilization of the test by women in Udayapur district of Nepal. Journal of chitwan Medical college. 2014;4(10):31-5. [Full Text | DOI]

9. Khadka K, Shah SK, Sanal TS, Mathias J, Upadhayay A, Ghimire R et al. Knowledge and Awareness about Cervical Cancer Screening and HPV vaccine among Females aged 15-49 years in Rukum District of Nepal. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2017;5(1):10-6. [Full Text | DOI]

10. Bansal AB,Pakhare AP, Kapoor N, Malhotra R, Kokane AM. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to cervical cancer among adult women: A hospital- based cross- sectional study. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2015 Jul-Dec;6(2):324-8. [Full Text | DOI]

11. Ahmed SA, Sabitu K, Idris SH, Ahmed R. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2013 Sep-Oct;54(5):316-9. [Full Text | DOI]

12. Aweke YH, Ayanto SY, Ersado TL. Knowledge, attitude and practice for cancer cervix prevention and control among women of child bearing age in Hossana Town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Community based cross sectional study. PLOS One. 2017;12(7):1-18. [Full Text | DOI]

13. Ebu NI, Mupepi SC, Siakwa MP, Sampselle CM. Knowledge, practice and barriers towards cervical cancer screening in Elmina, Southern Ghana. Int J Womens Health. 2014 Dec;7:31-9. [Full Text | DOI]

14. Sherpa AT, Karki BS, Sundby J, Nygard M, Francheschii S, Clifford G. Population Based Study of Cancer Cervix Screening in Bharatpur, Nepal. JMMIHS-7. 2015;1(4):1-8. [Full Text | DOI]
How to Cite
Thapa, M. (2018). Cervical Cancer Awareness and Practice of Pap Smear Test Among Women with Gynecological Problems. Journal of Nepal Medical Association, 56(211), 654-657. https://doi.org/10.31729/jnma.3633
Original Article