Clinical Profile and Endoscopic Findings in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study
Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common acute medical emergency. Endoscopy
is the gold standard diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of upper gastrointestinal
bleed. This study was undertaken to address the clinical profile, endoscopic profile, and outcomes in
patients with upper gastrointestinal bleed.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in
Gandaki Province, Nepal from January 2018 to December 2019 after obtaining ethical clearance
from Institutional Review Committee (MEMG/IRC/291/GA) and informed consent from
the patient or patient relatives. The sample size was calculated. Six hundred and sixty patients
with upper gastrointestinal bleed were included in the study. Data entry was done in Statistical
Packages for the Social Sciences version 20.
Results: Peptic ulcers and ruptured oesophageal varices are the common aetiologies of upper
gastrointestinal bleed. Inpatient mortality was seen in 98 (14.8 %) patients. Upper gastrointestinal
bleed of variceal etiology presents with a higher Rockall score and has more chances of rebleeding
and has higher mortality than those with non-variceal aetiologies. Bad prognostic factors were
rebleeding, variceal etiology, and comorbidities including cirrhotic and Rockall score > 6.
Conclusions: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common acute medical emergency. Early upper
gastrointestinal endoscopy preferably within 24 hours is recommended for diagnosis, timely
intervention, and management of the patients with an upper gastrointestinal bleed that helps in
reducing morbidity and mortality.
Copyright (c) 2020 Subash Bhattarai
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