Clinical Profile, Aetiology and Outcome of Afebrile Seizures in Children
Introduction: Clinical and outcome profiles of childhood seizures can be different in resource limited settings where neurologists face lots of challenges in diagnosis and management of seizure. This study was conducted to investigate the clinical profile, causes and outcome of afebrile seizures in children in resource limited settings.
Methods: This was a prospective hospital based study. Children with afebrile seizures were followed up with exclusion of febrile and acute provoked seizures. Clinical, investigation, treatment and outcome parameters were analyzed.
Results: Study included 308 (age one month to 20 years) children. Median age at first seizure was 39 (inter quartile range 12-96) months. History of status epilepticus was present in 26.0%. Cause of seizure was known in 44.2%. Seizure was generalized in 79.2%, partial in 14.0% and unclassified in 6.8%. Common causes of seizure were – birth asphyxia (12.3%), neurocysticercosis (8.8%), sequel of nervous system infection (6.5%) and structural brain abnormalities (7.1%). Neurological examination, electroencephalography and computed tomography (CT) were abnormal in 24.4%, 70.5% and 27.9% cases respectively. Seizure control was achieved in 79.3% and by monotherapy in 85.0 % cases. Seizure control with single drug, seizure without recurrence and idiopathic seizure were associated with favourable outcome.
Conclusions: Prevention and control of birth asphyxia, neurocysticercosis and nervous system infections are needed to reduce the burden of afebrile seizures in this area. CT is a valuable diagnostic tool and response to monotherapy is good. Seizure control with single drug, seizure without recurrence and idiopathic seizure are favourable prognostic factors.
Keywords: afebrile seizure; children; clinical profile; outcome.
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